The adrenal glands are essential for life. This post presents a summary of what the adrenal gland does, where it does is and the hormones it produces.

What are the adrenal glands?

Endocrinology, Medicine

The adrenal glands are very tiny glands located just above the kidneys. Just like you have two hands and two feet, you have two adrenal glands, a right, and a left.  Each gland has two specialized layers — an outer layer called the adrenal cortex and an inner layer called the adrenal medulla

The adrenal glands make several adrenal gland hormones that are released directly into the bloodstream and are essential for life.


Adrenal Gland

For a tiny gland, the adrenal packs a big punch!  The adrenal cortex, the outer layer of the gland, makes three classes of hormones — mineralocorticoids (aldosterone), glucocorticoids (cortisol) and androgens. Aldosterone helps regulate blood pressure and two of the body’s electrolytes: sodium and potassium. Cortisol is the body’s main stress hormone and is necessary for life. Androgens are a fancy way to say sex hormones. The sex hormones made by the adrenal gland are more important in females than males, as men get high levels of testosterone from the testicles. 

Suprarenal Gland: Adrenal Cortex and Adrenal Medulla
Suprarenal gland hormone: Epinephrine

Finally, the inner layer of the adrenal gland (the adrenal medulla) makes what is commonly referred to as adrenaline. Actually, adrenaline is two hormones, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. This specialized inner layer of the adrenal gland is considered to be a part of the body’s nervous system, helping the body respond to stress

— the “fight or flight” response.

Adrenal Gland Hormones: Why are they important for our general health?

Cortisol is the most important adrenal gland hormone produced by the adrenal glands.  Cortisol helps the body respond to stress and fight infections, and also helps regulate the blood sugar.  Patients with low levels of cortisol may experience darkening of the skin (especially in the folds), tiredness, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, low blood pressure, muscle pains, and salt cravings. In extreme circumstances, adrenal crises can occur and lead to death.

Suprarenal gland hormone: Cortisol
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Last Modified: Oct 11, 2017 @ 4:56 pm
About the Author

Chris Palmeiro D.O. M.Sc.


Dr. Palmeiro is Chairman of Endocrinology at the HealthAlliance of the Hudson Valley, he also serves patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities at the Westchester Institute of Human Development in Valhalla, New York. He has a Masters of Science degree in clinical nutrition and is a diplomate of the American Board of Internal Medicine. His interests within the realm of endocrinology include nutrition support, obesity counseling and the progressive management of diabetes.

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