- ACE InhibitorsACE inhibitors block the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (A.C.E.), by doing this they regulate the amount of salt and therefore water in the body. They are used to lower blood pressure by themselves or in combination with other medications. Also, they are one of the most important parts of any(...)
- AldosteroneThe main hormone in the body responsible for keeping salt (sodium) and water inside and letting go of potassium. Aldosterone is produced by the adrenal glands when the kidneys notice low blood pressure. A condition of excessive aldosterone production, known as the Conn Syndrome, causes a(...)
- AnginaAngina, also known as "typical chest pain", is the type of symptom that occurs when a person is having a heart attack. The term describes a pressure or burning sensation that occurs in the center of the chest. This can radiate to the left shoulder and down the left arm, neck, and jaw. It is(...)
- Angiotensin Receptor BlockersThese medications are selective inhibitors of the Angiotensin II Receptor. In this way they regulate salt, water and blood pressure in the body. They are used for blood pressure control, but in general are weak antihypertensives and require the use of additional medications to be effective.(...)
- ArrhythmiaAn arrhythmia is any rhythm of the heart that is different than the normal heart rhythm. The heart’s pacemaker, called the sinus node, usually triggers and drives the heart’s beating. But different parts of the heart can also drive the heart’s beat. If the heart’s pacemaker fails, this can(...)
- AtriumThe two top chambers of the heart. They work to "receive" the blood that returns to the heart from different sources: the veins and the lungs.
- B.M.I.The Body Mass Index is a simple calculation that helps compare a person’s weight to the general population. It was originally developed to study large numbers of people. Now it is used to determine if an individual’s weight is appropriate. Depending on the result, BMI divides people into 5(...)
- Beta BlockersUsed for a variety of different conditions ranging from heart failure, blood pressure control and even stage fright, beta blockers are known to block the beta receptor in the human body. By doing this, they slow the heart down, and regulate the amount of salt the kidney gets rid of. Side(...)
- Body Mass IndexThe Body Mass Index is a simple calculation that helps compare a person’s weight to the general population. It was originally developed to study large numbers of people. Now it is used to determine if an individual’s weight is appropriate. Depending on the result, BMI divides people into 5(...)
- Calcium Channel BlockersCalcium channel blockers dilate blood vessels. In this manner they lower blood pressure. Side effects can include swelling in the lower extremity. They rarely cause any other side effects. Examples include Amlodipine and Nifedipine.
- CarbohydratesOne of the three main nutrients in food that provides the energy needed for life. Carbohydrate-containing foods are broken down by the body into smaller sugar building blocks.
- CardiomyopathyA general medical term that describes an abnormal heart muscle. There are different kinds of abnormalities that can occur in the heart muscle: Dilated cardiomyopathy: the heart muscle becomes weak. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: the heart muscle becomes thick. Restrictive(...)
- Celiac diseaseAn abnormal reaction to gluten in the diet that affects the absorption of key nutrients by damaging cells whose job it is to absorb things from the small intestine.
- CellsBuilding blocks of living organisms. For example, if a large apartment building were a living thing, the smaller apartments within the building would be the cells. Each individual apartment (cell) is a functioning unit.
- CervixNarrow passage formed from the bottom of the uterus that connects the uterus to the vagina. Named because of its “neck-like” shape.
- Coronary ArteriesThe coronary arteries are the arteries that supply blood to the heart. The coronary circulation is divided into the right and the left sides. Whichever side delivers blood to the bottom part of the heart is considered to be the “dominant” side. The right side is dominant in 70 percent of the(...)
- DiureticsCommonly known as "water pills", these medications are the cornerstone of blood pressure treatment. Without them it may be hard to achieve good pressure control. Side effects are rare and include abnormal levels in the salts in your body and increased urination. Examples of these medications(...)
- ECGThe EKG (commonly referred in German) or ECG (electrocardiogram) is an essential tool in the arsenal of cardiology and medicine. It was originally developed by Willem Einthoven in 1901, who was later awarded the Nobel Prize in 1924 for this discovery. As its name describes, the ECG machine(...)
- FSHFollicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is produced by the “master” pituitary gland. In females it helps to control the menstrual cycle and egg production, while in males it helps to with the production of sperm.
- GlucagonA hormone made by the pancreas that works the opposite of insulin. Glucagon frees sugar from storage in the liver, so the body can use it while you are fasting.
- HormoneProteins released from parts of the body called glands. They help to send messages from one place in the body to parts that are farther away
- InsulinA hormone made by the pancreas. Insulin sends a message to the body to push sugar into the cell so it can be used or stored.
- LHLuteinizing hormone (LH) is produced by the “master” pituitary gland. In females it helps to control the menstrual cycle and release of the mature egg, while in males it controls the production of testosterone.
- LiverThe liver is a large, vital organ located in the right upper part of the belly. This organ is involved with approximately 500 different functions. The major functions of the liver include: 1) The liver produces bile, which assists in the digestion of fats. 2) It breaks down small(...)
- MacrovascularThe "macrovasculature" refers to the larger structures that make up the circulatory system of the body, specifically the arteries and the veins. Even though both carry blood, arteries and veins have different characteristics and functions. Arteries are designed to carry blood away from the(...)
- MicrovascularMicrovasculature refers to the large network of arterioles (smallest arteries), capillaries, and venules (smallest veins) in the body. This network of branching blood vessels makes up the largest and most important part of the circulatory system. The microvasculature is present in every part(...)
- MilliliterA measurement used in the metric system that is used to describe the volume or the amount of a fluid. The milliliter is often abbreviated ‘mL.’
- NoduleA small lump or mass, generally rounded in shape although it can also present with irregular form. Nodules can appear in the thyroid gland, skin and lungs.
- Normal heart rhythmHealthy people have a normal heart rhythm. Like many other things in medicine, normal simply means what is found most commonly in the average person of the same age and size. For most adults, the normal heart rhythm originates in the sinus node of the heart at a regular rate of 60 to 99 beats(...)
- PalpitationsPalpitations describes the feeling that your heart is racing, pounding, skipping, fluttering or jumping inside your chest. This complaint is usually given in the context of the person being at rest, laying down or otherwise not doing anything to provoke them. Some people also report(...)
- PancreasA small organ located just behind your stomach that is responsible for making and releasing digestive enzymes into the intestine and insulin into the blood.
- PericardiumThe pericardium is the bag that holds the heart inside. Its made of two bags, one inside the other. The pericardium allows the heart to move freely, shields it from other organs and protects it from infections that can occur in the lungs. The pericardium is made out of a partially elastic(...)
- ProteinOne of the three main nutrients in food that provides the energy needed for life. It is an important part of the structure of cells.
- Proteinone of the three ingredients in food that provide energy to the body. Proteins are necessary for life, and are important building blocks for the body — including the muscle and bone.
- RegurgitationA term used to describe what happens when a valve does not fully close, allowing fluid to escape backward. This can happen in the heart valves, causing valvular regurgitation. Regurgitation can be mild, moderate or severe. It can cause symptoms like shortness of breath if it is severe, and can(...)
- SCDSudden cardiac death (SCD) is the term used to describe when someone dies of a cardiac cause suddenly and unexpectedly. The actual medical definition varies from author to author, but it is generally considered death that occurs after one hour of the beginning of symptoms. Also, death must(...)
- StenosisStenosis is the medical word to describe a narrowing or tightening where there should not be one. This can happen in different places in the body, and cause different problems depending on where it is. Examples include valve stenosis, artery stenosis, and spinal stenosis. Coronary artery(...)
- Sudden Cardiac DeathSudden cardiac death (SCD) is the term used to describe when someone dies of a cardiac cause suddenly and unexpectedly. The actual medical definition varies from author to author, but it is generally considered death that occurs after one hour of the beginning of symptoms. Also, death must(...)
- VentricleThe lower chambers of the heart. There are two ventricles, each with a different function. The right ventricle is a receiving chamber where blood from veins accumulates before it moves on into the lungs. The left ventricle is a muscular cavity whose function is to push blood out into the body.
- Wellens' SyndromeThe Wellens' sign is one of the most distinctive cardiological signs of impending danger. It is so unique that people who have been found to have it have an up to a 65% chance of having a major heart attack. The Wellens' sign, also commonly referred to as the “coronary T wave syndrome” or also(...)
- X RaysA painless test that uses waves of energy shot from a machine that pass through the body. The structures in the body limit the amount of waves that make it through to the other side where the picture is caught. In areas of more bone, the rays are blocked, so less rays pass through. Less dense(...)